Saturday, June 4, 2016

論吾國人無愛國思想
  富强之道有本有末握其本則事事有精神可以震國民之腦筋結種族之團體務其末則不過支支節節而爲之形式雖具必無實效之可覩也吾人向來所豔稱泰西各國之富强者不過曰藝學之精耳商務之盛耳槍砲之利兵艦之多耳抑知以上種種皆富强之末務而本計則不在此也本何在則以國民有愛國思想爲第一義夫所謂愛國思想者其包舉極廣其能力極宏不可指一二端以爲概約爲計之則有二種一則在於親愛同胞也國者積民而成者也由個人而家族由家族而部落由部落而成國中國自盤古迄今數千餘年民數有四萬萬雖疆域殊風俗異而上推其所自出則凡爲漢族同祖軒皇是此四萬萬之衆固無異於同胞也旣爲同胞之人則宜互相愛護而不宜自分畛域使人人有愛護同胞之心則痛癢相關休戚與共自能結成團體而不爲外族所欺侮矣一則在於保存國粹也中國開化最早唐虞三代最稱隆成聖經賢傳若日星之炳於天綱常倫理若江河之行於地是蓋吾國數千年來賴以立國之國粹所當珍惜愛護而不可棄之若弁髦也泰西之人於其本國文字及拉丁文經典皆自幼誦習終身不敢廢棄可見保存國粹之說中外所同使人人知舊學之可重則愛國之心油然而生自不爲外說所洧奪矣乃觀於今之吾國人則大異是吾國之人受治於數千年專制政體之下養成倚賴性質不復知國與身有密切之開係加以教育不講民智閉塞雖人數冠於全球而具有國民之資格者千人無一二同光以來歐力東漸教堂林立商埠繁興其餘輪船電報鐡路礦務諸大政又無不任用外人白種勢力遂徧於全國爲虎作倀者流無不倚仗洋勢魚肉同胞蠻横之情怨毒之事談者眥裂聞者髮指地方有司亦隠忍徧袒奉令惟謹以致激成拳匪之禍演數百年未有之慘劇是皆由於吾人無愛國思想故惟利是圖甘爲奴隸牛馬而不惜也然此第就下等社會言之耳若夫身列士林名登仕版或受朝廷轉達之知遇或爲通國仰望之名公其辦事也宜若可以力顧大局稍盡公德矣乃歴觀近來各處所辦之事某省訂一開礦合同則受賄數萬矣某省立一鐡路公司則受賄數十萬矣其屈指可計者若杭紳某部郎串同洋商將浙江全省礦山私售矣粤紳某京堂則因日工程師被殺一事借外人之勢要挾政府矣又粤漢鐡路廢約一案某侍郎某宫保俱有莫須有之事(觀梁主政之書已隠約可知)此皆各報論之已詳非記者一人之私言由是觀之是吾國之上等社會亦慣於罔利營私而不顧公家之利害矣至於小輪挂旗店鋪戲牌等事自有爲叢驅雀者任其咎於若輩固然足責耳熱心之士鑒於國勢之積衰社會之腐敗憤時嫉俗發爲過激之論以爲中國之不振實由於古法之未善欲盡棄向來之禮俗政教而一一倣效西法舉世洶洶一唱百和循是以往中國千年以後舊學其將澌滅殆盡矣夫持向來之舊學與外域較其間短長得失蓋有之矣而豈謂盡在淘汰之例耶國之不强由於舊學之不明而非舊學之無用乃執後世之弊政而追咎古人所謂愛護祖國之心又何在耶前之一弊大半出於胸無分曉利令智昏之徒後之一弊則當世號稱志士者猶不能免吾故走筆論之世之有愛國心者其亦有取於此言否耶
續錄中國旅美商民上倫貝子書
  我朝工商之業委諸民間任其自爲未嘗措意今以美國賽會派及懿親此非僅爲敦邦交起見實以我國之窶貧由谥商工之不振商工之不振由於朝廷之未嘗重視故今特遣重臣以示奬勵殿下適當其任可謂非常之異舉矣然而商民欲有言者則默推赴會興商之意而清開本國會塲也原賽會之義蓋以已國人工製造之品與各國人工製造之品比較優劣良窳而得其精進之道俾工藝蒸蒸日上工藝旣蒸蒸日上則商業亦必蒸蒸日上無工藝之精良商業不能擴張無商業之販銷工藝亦不能興旺是商業之與工藝兩相連合者也中國商自商工自工有不宜於銷售之品而工不能知而改圖有適合於嗜好之物而商不能羅而轉運工有工病商有商病是皆無賽會之故夫中國地大物博其天然品之多固爲各國所不及卽以人工品而論亦不在各國之下乃近年以來不獨絲茶兩者失其大利卽顧繡瓷器骨董之類亦爲日本所奪華商旅居外國生意之大者以販日本漆器爲大宗而華貨不銷焉非外人之不喜華貨也實我華商與工不相聨貫工不通商情商不求工巧故商務退縮不前耳竊意中國此次政府及商人置辦貨物來赴賽會者不少賽會旣畢其精巧之物爲各國購去者當亦甚衆我國之商經此次會場比較見識必有所進然内地各省之商其未能躬歴會塲者又無量數也此無量數之商其智識仍然如故雖有百數十人由會場而歸者得以其所見聞增益其所不知而亦僅矣竊以爲不若乘聖魯易賽會旣畢将來赴賽會之萬貨麕致京師於京師開會塲爲各省樹先聲俾各省之天然品人工品皆赴會場比較焉如是各省之工藝大集各得法所長而去所短進於良而除其窳則我國之工藝必發大光彩矣京師旣畢或先擇商務殷繁之地而開之上海漢口廣州等處挨次開設然後由直隸而山東而江蘇而浙江而閩粤而滇桂而湘鄂而川陜而晉豫或今年開於此省明年移至彼省或於黄河可通之處擇其一省開之或於揚子江上下遊擇其一省開之或於西江上下遊擇其 省開之三處不必並開祗須順年以開三年可畢有三處以爲各省人工百貨之萃薈場精心無不畢具以華人聰明之巧智慧之靈由此道以鑿其競爭之竅工藝之進步未有不可操券而獲者也工藝旣有進步商業亦飛揚於大地矣彼夫派人遊學學成卽設立學堂使之敎全國子弟俾人才不可勝用各省開賽會塲以教商署亦若是焉耳日本僅吾一省之地而已迭次開博覽會况我中國乎此其二也抑商等更有請者朝廷歴年派學生游學歐美無非欲得眞才以濟國用數歲以來孶孶不倦意良厚矣然其間學成不歸或歸而朝廷不用未嘗不阻學生報國之心竊以爲國家多難之秋異國有才尚欲借用况爲已民乎商賽聞有華人鄭襄自幼在紐約留學卒業爲機器師凡西人大工廠及學機器者莫不就其廬請教授以數語則歡喜而去其學爲全美所重但以祖國無人薦引故朝廷不知其能送淹滯異國爲外人效馳驅倘能拔擢委以機器局全權聽其便宜行事或開機器學堂使彼悉心教授則中國機學一門必能與外國爭勝鄭襄旣得盡其所長以報朝廷而留學外國及華商子弟皆有所觀感而奮志於功名成才者自必日多矣商等區區之見未審當否因其頗關於日後國家商務之通塞故爲及之位卑言高妄瀆清聽不勝屏營待命之至

Monday, November 24, 2014

Clouds and Ravines

I've decided that it's time to start a new blog.

The purpose of my last blog, Broken Lights, was described well by its URL: perplextinfaith.blogspot.com. I started it as a way to discuss issues that concerned me at the intersection of spirituality, religion, and LGBT issues. The problem is that I don't feel that I'm any longer "perplext in faith." My thinking time is largely spent elsewhere, and so a lot of what I want to write doesn't fit under the purpose of that blog. Additionally, I want to start a few side projects and need a place to publish them. So I've started this new blog.

The overall theme of this blog, as you can tell by large picture of the yin yang symbol at the top, is to blog about my thoughts as I deepen my study of Chinese history and philosophy. In this effort, I'm also engaging more with classical Chinese texts. One of my frustrations in studying classical Chinese is that there's not a publicly available space that elucidates the grammar and function of individual words in classical texts like the Analects, Zhuangzi, or the Daode Jing. I plan on studying each of these, and I want to use this blog as a place to create that resource. I'm going slowly through each of those texts, starting with Zhuangzi, and I plan to use this blog as a place to analyze the grammar and vocabulary of each paragraph, including comments on English translations and modern Chinese explanations. The anticipated audience of those posts is people who, like me, have proficiency in modern Mandarin and are interested in extending their reading into classical Chinese texts.

I'm also going to use this blog to post any other things I'm thinking about that fall outside of the realm of my general academic interests. I'm sure I'll still post occasionally about Mormonism, LGBT issues, etc. I'm hoping this blog can just be a home for general thoughts to share with the world as well as a repository of information and research for my own purposes.

The name of the blog comes from my favorite passage from a Zhang Daye's 1894 memoir, "The World of a Tiny Insect," which has been the subject of my undergraduate honors thesis. Describing what it was like standing on top of a mountain and watching a village far below being destroyed during a war, Zhang wrote:

"...human beings continue to dream their great dream, and none wakes up from it. From past to present they have always been distinguishing favor from disfavor and gains from losses, harming and murdering one another. What ignorance! I turn around and see the mountain flowers in bright red blossoms as if they were smiling; the realm of happiness in nature and that of suffering in the human world are as far apart as clouds and ravines. As I look up at the blue sky, the white sun is shining forth with a dazzling light. It is all very sad."

It's kind of a depressing passage, I admit, but it summarizes a lot of what motivates my own intellectual inquiry: the causes and conditions of human suffering and happiness and how that takes place over time. I hope anyone who decides to read this blog enjoys it and engages with me in the issues I discuss!